Tuesday, August 19, 2014

The Ultimate Guide to Table Selection for Today's Online Micro Stakes Cash Games

Table selection in today's online micro stakes cash games
Table selection has come a long way over the years at the micros. It was literally a foreign concept when I first started playing online poker in the mid 00's. The games were a lot better back then but nobody paid any attention to what table they sat down at and they certainly didn't care what seat they got. Fast forward to 2014 and if you aren't table selecting in a big way (even at the very lowest stakes) you are doing yourself a huge disservice.

Table selection is an absolute must in today's games. Long gone are the days when you can sit down at a random NL25 table and expect to have a couple of huge whales splashing around. You can get lucky and find this on rare occasions especially on a weekend but this is very much the exception to the norm. The typical table these days will consist of a bunch of tight regs and one semi-bad, slightly loose player.

It is impossible to crush these games if you insist on sitting at tables like this all of the time. No matter how much you study how to beat the regs or stay on top of every new strategy out there you will still face a winnings ceiling. This is the point where your winrate simply cannot go any higher because fundamentally your opponents just aren't making enough mistakes.

No matter how bad many of the tight players are who dominate today's micro stakes games they simply aren't in enough hands to make the same kinds of massive mistakes that recreational players do. They also don't put themselves in positions to make second best hands as often by getting get out-kicked or out-flushed because they don't play as many weak hands.

There are some people out there who still refuse to take table selection seriously in today's games. If you are in this category then this article is not for you. A mediocre winrate is the best that you can hope for due to your decision to neglect this absolutely crucial part of the game. To the rest of you who are interested in having a big winrate in today's games I am going to outline some of the key strategies that I use to find good tables and perhaps more importantly, good seats.


Table Selection Versus Seat Selection

Let me first get into a key distinction that I just brushed over. Finding the right table in today's games is only half of the battle. In fact for many hardcore bumhunters (people who only sit with huge fish) it is just the beginning. This is because they know (and you should too) that getting the seat to the left of the fish which is often referred to as the "Jesus Seat" is where the big money is made in this game.

The power of position is an often misunderstood concept for newer players. By this I mean that they massively underestimate it's importance. When you have immediate position on someone at the poker table (you are on their direct left) you have an advantage so large that even against a much superior opponent you can expect to at least break even versus them over the long run.

The reverse is also true. An inferior opponent who has direct position on you will likely bust you given enough time. Getting on the direct left of the recreational player (or as close to it as possible) is of absolutely vital importance in the table selection process. If you are on the right of the fish it will severely restrict your ability to isolate them preflop and value bet and bluff them postflop. This will negatively impact your ability to get their stack in a huge way.

I will talk about getting the Jesus Seat a bit more later though. First things first, how do we find the tables with the recreational players on them?


Play Poker at the Right Times

As mentioned finding the big fish is not always an easy task in today's games even at the very lowest stakes. There are some strategies that you can take though to seriously improve your odds.

1) Play More on Weekends 

This is the oldest and totally foolproof table selection "trick" in the book. The games are always a little bit better on the weekends because recreational players have jobs to attend to during the week. On the weekends they want to unwind, perhaps have some drinks and play a bit of online poker. I have been playing online poker for nearly 10 years now. It has always been my experience that the games are a bit better on the weekends. Fish are out in larger numbers and there are more intoxicated lunatics.

Obviously we all have lives outside of poker though and if we only played on the weekends then it would be hard to get much volume in. So the point of this is not to say that you shouldn't play during the week. Yes of course you should. But if you can, you should designate more hours on the weekends. Play those epic long sessions then as well.

2) Play More During Prime-Time Hours

This is another table selection method that may pre-date the dinosaurs. People ask me all the time when the best time to play is. The answer isn't so clear in today's games though. Before the American online poker market was decimated by Black Friday several years ago the best time to play was clearly during the prime-time North and South American hours (6pm-12pm roughly).

In today's online poker climate game quality is much more balanced between the prime-time hours in North/South America and those in Europe. Prime-time in Asia is a distant third. Since most people reading this article aren't from Asia then this shouldn't be a big concern. If you do happen to live in a place like Thailand though, then it is advisable that you change your schedule a bit usually by playing early in the morning which is prime-time in North/South America.


Recreational Poker Players non-HUD Tells

Guide to table selection in today's online micro stakes cash games
As I have discussed before there are several clear as day "tells" that recreational players give off to identify themselves as bad players. None of these require any HUD data.

1) Stack Size Below 100bb

100bb is the maximum allowable buyin in most online poker cash games. Good poker players always want to have the most money possible in front of them. The reason is pretty simple. The more money you have in front of you, the more you can win. If you are the best (or among the best) at the table then it only makes sense to push your edge or "scale up" as much as possible. The only time when you should ever consider buying in for less than the maximum allowable stack size is if you are playing a higher stake than normal to chase a fish and he has bought in for less than the maximum.

There are some well known mid stacking and short stacking strategies out there. I do not advocate using either of them because no matter how you cut it you are placing an artificial ceiling on your potential winnings. However, you will occasionally run into some decent players in today's games who use one of these strategies.

The large majority of the time though when you run into someone at the tables who has bought in for less than the maximum (or they are not using the auto top up stack option) they will be a recreational player. The clearest sign of all is when somebody buys in for something like $17.63 on an NL25 table. This is clearly their entire bankroll and you should identify them as a fish right away.

2) Posting a Blind OOP

Anyone who takes this game seriously knows that you should always wait for the big blind to come around to you before posting a blind. The blinds can be thought of like a tax that you have to pay in order to play the game. Nobody would ever voluntarily pay more taxes than they owe.

The only players who disregard this are recreational players. When they sit down at the table they simply want to get playing as soon as possible. They have a limited amount of time to play and they want to get in the action as soon as possible. If you see anyone post a blind OOP you can identify them as a fish immediately.

3) Limping

There really is no justification for limping at the micros in any scenario. Pretty much everybody has realized these days that it simply makes a lot more sense to raise when first in the pot or if there are limpers. If you see anyone open limping then you can immediately identify them as a recreational player.

4) Min Bets Postflop

Another surefire sign of a bad player is a min bet after the flop. While there are some good players who will open for a min raise preflop, especially from LP, nobody who has any knowledge of the game would ever make a minimum bet after the flop. The reason why is because a bet of say $1 into a $10 pot is totally meaningless. Your opponent can profitably call with any two cards.

5) Playing One or Two Tables

Regs will almost always be playing at least half a dozen tables at once (and often many more) since they play tight and therefore have less decisions to make. They also want to increase their rakeback. Recreational players play a lot more hands and their decisions are often based on superstition and emotion rather than logic and repetition. They also generally have no clue about rakeback. Therefore they can often only handle a table or two at a time. Most poker rooms allow you to search a player. If you suspect that somebody is a bad player then search them and note the number of tables.

6) Low Rakeback Status

On sites where it applies such as Pokerstars a big clue to someone's ability is their rakeback status. It is advisable to never show your rakeback status for any reason. Giving out free information at the poker table simply makes no sense at all. However, recreational players don't care about this. If you see somebody showing Bronzestar or Chromestar on Pokerstars for instance, and you are playing NL25 or higher, this is a big clue that they are a bad player. Anyone playing these stakes regularly would have a higher rakeback status.

7) Smart Phone or Tablet Symbol on Pokerstars

Pokerstars intoduced the smart phone and tablet symbols beside each player using them awhile ago. These can be turned off in the options. Once again recreational players are more likely to leave them turned on though. Also, recreational players are far more likely to be playing online poker using a smart phone or a tablet. The large majority of regs would rather use a desktop or a notebook in order to play as many tables as they want and utilize all of their poker related software. Players showing these symbols on Pokerstars are almost invariably bad players.


Tag Them Right Away

If you notice a player that is showing any of these 7 signs then you should tag them as a recreational player immediately. Almost all poker sites allow you to put a color tag or a note beside a player. These essentially last forever and make table selection much easier in the future because you already know who is a fish. On Pokerstars you should go:

Options > Player Notes > Left click player to assign label
table selection in micro stakes cash games
This will allow you to tag somebody as a recreational player with one click. Whenever you have down-time at the tables (nothing is happening) you should be making sure that you are on good tables and tagging all the bad players. Always make sure that you tag them as you are closing down your session as well since you will have the maximum amount of information on everybody. Speaking of that, I am going to talk about how to identify recreational players with your HUD next.


Recreational Player HUD Tells

Finding the fish in today's online micro stakes cash games
If you read this blog regularly then you will know that I highly suggest using a HUD in today's games even at the lowest limits. You can certainly still win without one but it is just silly to forgo the kind of information that these programs are capable of providing you with. They will often pay for themselves in a week or two at the most.

The absolute easiest way to spot a recreational player is by VPIP (percentage of hands that they play) and PFR (percentage of hands that they raise with preflop). Bad players will have a VPIP that is at least 30 or more. This goes for 6max or full ring. And they will often have a PFR that is considerably less than this. The true bumhunter specialist is looking for the recreational players with a VPIP of 40, 50 or more though. These are the players who burn through stacks at a truly incredible pace.

Sometimes they will have a PFR of just a single digit (52/7 for instance). This is often referred to as a whale or a "drooler" fish. Sometimes they will have a PFR that is much closer to their VPIP though (52/37 for instance). This is often referred to as a maniac or an "aggro fish." While the strategies to exploit these two player types differ in some ways both are like rocket fuel for your winrate. If you spend all of your time at the tables playing against these kinds of opponents it is literally impossible not to crush these games beyond belief.

Always make sure that you play a few orbits before you make a final decision on somebody. Just because you spot a player with an 80% VPIP doesn't necessarily mean that they are a recreational player if the sample size is only 5 or even 10 hands. It is definitely possible to simply have a good run of good cards over a sample like this. I prefer to wait until I have about 20 hands on someone before I decide for sure whether they are a bad player or not.


Start Your Own Tables

One of the best ways to find recreational players in today's games is to simply let them come to you. The easiest and most well known method of doing this is to simply start your own tables. As I mentioned before, fish only have a limited amount of time to play poker and when they sit down at the virtual felt they want to get dealt in as soon as possible. Because of this they are more likely to choose a table that has empty seats on it. Start your own table and watch them come to you.

Many people do not like to do this because they are not confident in their abilities when it is heads up or ultra short handed. The first thing that you need to remember is that the tables that you start will usually fill up really fast. You will often be playing 6 handed or 9 handed like you are used to before you even know it.

Secondly, even if you have to play a few hands short handed just play your normal game and don't worry about it. We are talking about terrible players here. You win money off of them by making hands and value betting the crap out of them. Therefore the same method to beat them applies whether there are 2 people at the table or 9. Just open with a few more hands than usual and play normal poker after that.

Lastly, if no recreational players show up and you find yourself playing heads up against an obvious reg (he doesn't limp the button, 3Bets a fair bit etc) then simply leave the table or sit out. There is no need to prove anything versus another reg. Just move on and start another table or sit out and wait for the fish to show up.


Snipe The Jesus Seat

This final method is in the arsenal of all hardcore bumhunters these days. It is also highly effective. The idea of starting your own tables to attract the recreational players is not a new idea. Therefore, you will probably notice a few other regs doing the exact same thing. Simply open up a bunch of those tables and observe them but don't sit yet. As soon as an unknown player or a known fish sits down at any of these tables immediately grab the seat to the left of them. There is no easier way to get the most profitable seat in the game.

Don't be afraid to simply hop around the table and grab the Jesus Seat if the table is not full either. This isn't live poker, you won't be hurting anyone's feelings. Don't bother waiting for the blinds to come to you. Just leave the table straight away and rejoin at the seat to the left of the bad player. You want this seat at all costs.


The Importance of Table Selection

I hope that some of the above methods will help you better identify the bad players and get the best seat against them. I have to reiterate that choosing to ignore table selection in today's games is an absolutely colossal mistake. I would go as far as to say that you should be spending upwards of 50% of your actual time at the tables looking for bad players and getting the right seat against them.

You can study all of the latest and greatest poker strategy theories until the sun goes down. Against decent thinking opponents this stuff can only help your winrate in a small way though. You simply cannot crush these games anymore at any level above NL10 if you are not fully committed to finding the worst players and playing with them a large majority of the time.

Many people are stubborn (or ignorant) though and refuse to accept the fundamental rule that you cannot create a big winrate against players who are not making many huge mistakes. The latest fad is GTO (game theory optimal) play. If I can just figure out how to balance my ranges perfectly against every opponent in every situation then I will finally be able to crush these games! Err...no. You are still trying to draw blood from a stone. The real money in this game will always be in playing against extremely bad (or tilted) players.

"Why you need to table select and EXACTLY how to do it (via @blackrainpoker)"
(Click to Tweet)

Let me know in the comments below how you table select at the micros these days. If you found this article helpful please share it on Facebook and Twitter below. It really helps me out. Thanks!
Nathan Williams aka "BlackRain79" is a poker player, coach, DragTheBar instructor and the author of Crushing the Microstakes and Modern Small Stakes.

Thursday, August 14, 2014

CBetting the Flop at the Micros (Modern Evolution)

CBetting the Flop at the Micros (Modern Evolution)
I don't believe that I have ever really covered CBetting the flop in detail on this blog. Also, CBetting theory has certainly evolved at the micro and small stakes in recent years. Five or six years ago when the games began to tighten up people began to realize that frequently continuing up their preflop raise (regardless of their holdings) was a very profitable thing to do. This is because the play shifted to a weak-tight model where a lot of people thought that being overly tight both preflop and postflop was the way to go.

The pendulum has started to swing back in the other direction though in recent years at least amongst "thinking" players at NL10+. By this I am referring to the better regs at these stakes who are aware that you are CBetting too much and will actively take steps to exploit it. It is important to note that versus most of the regs at lower stakes and against most recreational players at all limits CBetting the flop frequently is still very effective.

So how should we re-adjust on the flop versus the better players in today's games?


Be Unpredictable

Decent regs at the micro and small stakes today are going to rip you apart if you CBet the flop 80%+ of the time against them. They will float you when they are IP and bet the turn when checked to. Or they will simply raise the flop or the turn. If OOP they will check/raise or check/call and lead or check/raise the turn. They know (correctly) that against heavy CBetters they will be able to get folds a lot of the time with these types of lines because their opponent simply won't have a hand to fight back with very often.

The way that we can counteract this though is by widening our check/continuance range on the flop. By this I mean having a range of hands that we check the flop with as the preflop raiser both IP and OOP. However, we are not giving up with these hands. This range should be a fair bit wider when we are OOP in order to counteract our positional disadvantage.

So in practice we do this by mixing in more check backs IP and check/calls and check/raises OOP with a wide variety of holdings. This is really just about balancing our range more in these situations. When you have an active checking range on the flop (that doesn't only include total air) you make yourself much harder to play against. This is because your opponent now faces the threat of being played back at when they attempt to float or check/raise you on the flop or turn.

Now don't get me wrong. We should definitely still be CBetting the flop frequently in many spots against good players. We did raise preflop after all which generally means that we started the hand with something halfway decent. It is certainly still profitable to follow it up with a bet quite a bit of the time. Conversely, we also want to still give up with total air especially when OOP a certain amount of the time.

What this is really about is widening that third part of our range (checking and continuing) that became almost non-existent among the flop CBetting frenzy of  past years. In 2014 CBetting 80%+ and giving up almost always when floated or played back at will not cut it against many of the better regs especially by the time you get to NL25. We need to let our opponents know that a check on the flop is not necessarily a white flag from us. In fact it very well might be dangerous for them. Let's look at some examples of how this might play out.


Example #1 (Full Ring)

TAG Villain: 15/12/3, fold to flop CBet 56%, raise flop CBet 33%

Hero opens from MP+1 with A♥5♥
Villain calls from the BTN

The flop comes:
Q♥7♣3♦

Hero???

Most people would just make a "standard" CBet here versus a single opponent on a dry single broadway board like this. But consider the opponent in this situation. We are against a reg who folds to a flop CBet a fairly mediocre to low amount of the time at 56%. He also raises a flop CBet at a fairly high 33% of the time.

Also though, as I mention repeatedly in Modern Small Stakes, we need to adjust for the situation. We need to think about why a good reg like this would choose to flat us preflop in this spot. He knows that our range is wide when opening from MP+1. Most regs will simply go ahead and make a light 3Bet here. When he calls it is at least in part to balance his range and prevent us from being able to 4Bet the crap out of him.

But more importantly it is also done with the full intention of using position to take the pot away from us after the flop. We would do the exact same thing if the roles were reversed here. So considering the situation (he knows that we are weak a lot and at a positional disadvantage) we should probably expect our opponent here to float or raise us considerably more than what the numbers above indicate. How can we adjust to this?

Well, as I mentioned before, this is where having a reasonably wide check/continuance range can really help. Instead of just blindly tossing out a CBet here and getting floated or raised all day why not check/raise sometimes instead? Or how about a check/call and then lead the turn or check/raise the turn line? This puts all of the pressure back on our opponent here. And the truth is, he usually doesn't have anything very good either especially on an exceedingly dry board like this.

If you are capable of taking lines like this a reasonably significant amount of the time then the better regs will have to think twice next time about flatting you IP preflop and trying to screw with you after the flop. It should be noted that we should have a check/fold range here as well. And a traditional CBet range as well. But versus an active reg in a situation like this who is obviously only in the hand to mess with me a lot I am not afraid to alter my frequencies heavily.

It is also very important that you are able to take these lines with much more than the nuts as well. It should be balanced out with draws, middle pairs and even total air like in this hand.

Hero Should: 
Check/Raise or Check/Call (with turn followup) 1/2 of the time, CBet 1/4 of the time, Check/Fold 1/4 of the time


Example #2 (6max)

TAG Villain: 22/19/3, fold to flop CBet 52%, raise flop CBet 35%

Villain opens from the CO
Hero 3Bets from the BTN with Q♠Q♣
Villain calls

The flop comes:
5♥5♦J♠

Villain checks
Hero???

We are IP this time and we have the virtual nuts. This is another spot where we need to develop a checking range in order to make it more difficult for the better regs to play against us. Checking behind here on occasion will encourage the more aggressive regs to lead the turn and possibly the river as well as a bluff. It will also make them think twice about check/raising us when we do CBet because they will know that we can show up with hands like this sometimes as well.

In contrast, most of the weaker regs at the micro and small stakes these days will just auto-CBet here and only check behind on occasion with total air. This is extremely exploitable because first off we can just lead the turn and/or river no matter what we have and expect to take it down a lot because they have essentially given up. Or we can take a check/call the flop and lead the turn or check/raise the flop and lead the turn line and expect to get a lot of folds because a lot of their range includes ace highs and mid pairs that cannot withstand a lot of heat.

By balancing our range better in these spots versus the thinking regs in these games we can prevent ourselves from being exploited by these lines. We can confuse our opponent and provide no clear path to success for them. This should always be one of your main goals when playing against good poker players.

Hero Should:
Check behind 1/3 of the time, CBet 2/3 of the time


Final Thoughts

I hope that this discussion has proven useful for some of you who are struggling versus the better players who will play back at you as you move up the stakes. Balancing your range against them is the answer. And regarding the flop this means widening your check/continuance range (especially when OOP) so that your actions are not so black or white and predictable.

I want to be very clear though that none of this really applies at NL2, NL4, NL5 and even NL10 for the most part. The regs at these stakes are still largely beginners and are not thinking much beyond the strength of their own hand. Even versus many of the bad regs at NL25, NL50 and NL100 this sort of balancing is not overly important. This really only applies to that small subset of regs who populate the higher end of the micros, play a moderate or low amount of tables and are actively thinking about how to exploit their opponents.

Otherwise, you shouldn't bother complicating things for yourself. Making the obvious play is still overwhelmingly the right decision in most scenarios at the micro and small stakes games today.

Let me know your strategies for counteracting chronic flop floaters and raisers in the comments below.

Also, if you liked this article please share it with your friends on Facebook and Twitter below.
Nathan Williams aka "BlackRain79" is a poker player, coach, DragTheBar instructor and the author of Crushing the Microstakes and Modern Small Stakes.

Thursday, July 31, 2014

Slow Losing Poker Sessions - Here is How to Make Sense of Them

Understanding Slow Losing Poker Sessions
We've all been there. They happen quite frequently even to the biggest winners especially at any stakes above NL10. They are those slow losing poker sessions where you can't quite put your finger on exactly what went wrong. It is not as if you ran into a bunch of coolers or bad beats all at once. That is something that I call a "hell session" where you simply cannot win a hand to save your life. They also seem to have the nuts every time. No, it was just a slow decline. You actually thought that you played pretty well. However, when all was said and done you were a couple buyins worse the wear.

Making sense of these sessions is difficult especially for newer players. It is also hard for people who have marginal or negative winrates because they will happen very, very frequently to them. It is important to realize though that these sessions are a natural occurrence for everybody who plays poker. They are part of the variance that comes with playing this game. The key is to make sure that they were unavoidable and you were not the problem.

The Most Important Stat

The first stat that I always look at when analyzing a slow losing session like this is WSD (W$SD% for HM2 users). In more precise terms this refers to the percentage of the time that you won money (the pot) when you went to showdown. In Pokertracker 4 this stat should already be added by default. The same goes for any other poker tracking program. If it is not, then add it right away.

Most winning players have a WSD that hovers somewhere between the high 40's and the mid 50's (if your WSD is significantly outside of this range then there might be some deeper fundamental issues with your game). If you had a slow losing session then it is likely that you will be in the mid or low 40's. Anywhere below this (in the 30's for instance) is definitely a hell session.

The difference between a winning and losing session can often be a very fine line. Often it will boil down to just a few key pots. However the cumulative effect of losing just 5% or 10% less often at showdown than you normally do can easily make the difference as well.

Win/Loss Ratio of Medium Sized Pots

As I talked about in a post earlier this year about how to conduct a session review it is easy to filter for pots between a certain size in PT or HEM. Again, in these small losing sessions it is assumed that the big pots (you stacked someone or they stacked you) roughly even out. So I want to know what happened in a bunch of smaller pots of roughly 30bb-100bb in size.

Most winning players over the long haul should have a decided advantage in winning versus losing pots of this size. In a slow losing session though you will likely have quite a few more than normal in the losing category. It is key that you examine the losing hands carefully and make sure that the reason you lost them was outside of your control.

As I talk about near the end of Modern Small Stakes there are a number of key questions that you should be asking yourself when reviewing these hands.

  • Could I have won this pot with a different line?
  • Did I correctly make use of all the HUD data that I had on my opponent at the time? (i.e. imbalances that can be exploited)
  • Did I put my opponent on a correct range based on the action in the hand and the player type?

If you are satisfied that in the majority of these hands that there is no better way that you could have played it, then you just have to move on and accept the results. If not then this is the time to note the mistakes that you made and make adjustments in the future.

The Long Run is Long

As we know winning poker is just a series of good decisions made over the long run. At limits above NL10 where the winrates for most long term winning players are typically not above 5bb/100 a sizeable number of your sessions are going to end negatively even if you did everything right. It is important to understand that this is simply a reality in today's games.

As long as you are confident that you made good decisions most of the time (nobody is perfect) then you have nothing to worry about. I often don't even bother reviewing these types of sessions anymore. The WSD stat usually tells me everything that I need to know. But for newer or struggling players it is a good idea to review your medium sized losing pots frequently. This is often where the difference between winning and losing players is found.

Anybody can stack someone with a set when their opponent has an overpair. Everybody goes broke when they run KK into AA. These pots play themselves. You need to make sure that you are doing everything in your power to win the pots when nobody has anything (or at least anything very good). Everything else is just a part of the natural cycle of variance in this game that we all go through.

How do you approach slow losing poker sessions?

If you enjoyed this article please share it with your friends on Facebook and Twitter below.
Nathan Williams aka "BlackRain79" is a poker player, coach, DragTheBar instructor and the author of Crushing the Microstakes and Modern Small Stakes.

Sunday, July 20, 2014

Announcing the Release of my 2nd Book "Modern Small Stakes"

Modern Small Stakes release
Finally!

Well, it is nearly 7 months now after the promised release date but I am extremely happy to officially announce the release of my 2nd book, "Modern Small Stakes." This is indeed the long promised "CTM2." I chose to go with a completely different title because this is a completely different book. Modern Small Stakes focuses on higher limits (NL10-NL100) than Crushing the Microstakes (NL2-NL5). It is also far more advanced in theory and depth on every level. This book was infinitely harder to write and turned out to be double the length of its predecessor at over 500 pages.

When I first started to work on Modern Small Stakes about a year and a half ago I set a goal to write the best book ever written on these limits. I really felt (and still do) that the literature out there is really lacking at these stakes especially regarding today's games.

In retrospect this goal of mine was  probably a bit foolish because it made me demand perfectionism at every corner and ensured countless revisions and alterations of the text. It also made the length of the book far greater than I had originally planned. I felt that this was necessary though in order to get across everything that I wanted to say about these stakes.

These are two of the main reasons why it took so long for me to release this book. I sincerely apologize to all of those who have been waiting for months on end and asking for updates. On the bright side, I am confident that I accomplished my goal.

I believe that Modern Small Stakes will be a game-changer in the poker world for full ring and 6max small stakes NLHE cash games. It covers every aspect of the game at these limits in extensive detail from HUD setup, player type analysis, game selection, 3Betting, 4Betting, 5Betting, balancing your range, CBetting frequencies, barreling frequencies, bluffing frequencies, intentionally tilting other regs and so much more. With over 100 highly detailed examples involving real opponents and real situations at these stakes, every effort was made to explain how to translate the theory into practice.



Table of Contents 

Before I say anything else about the book let me post the table of contents so that you can get a better idea of what is included. The table of contents is featured below in the official Youtube release video for Modern Small Stakes.



Individual screenshots of all 14 pages of the table of contents are also listed below. 
(Click to Enlarge)


















The heart of Modern Small Stakes is teaching how to break down your opponent at these limits to the finest detail. This is why there is extensive discussion of effective HUD use throughout this book. In MSS I also assume that your opponents are reasonably good thinking regulars 95% of the time. Therefore, issues of balancing your range in all situations play a heavy role as well.

Whereas CTM consisted of a playbook macro type approach to exploiting the terrible players who populate the very lowest stakes, MSS is about micro managing versus fairly good players. What becomes evident to the reader early on in the book is that all players at these stakes really do have fairly significant leaks. They just aren't as readily noticeable as they are with the massive donkeys who dominate every table at the lowest limits.

This is why Modern Small Stakes is extremely example heavy (102 of them to be exact and roughly 50% 6max and 50% full ring). As you move up the stakes success becomes more and more about throwing the "standard play" out the window at times and finding the line that yields the highest EV for this particular opponent, in this particular situation. Therefore, there are a lot of outside the box, "advanced" or "fancy plays" suggested in this book. But they are always made for the right reasons.

My hope once again with Modern Small Stakes is that it takes your game to the next level. More precisely, that it improves your bottom line at the tables. This is why you will find the same linear and practical approach in this book as you did in CTM. There is a vast amount of information presented in this book which covers every aspect of the game. Modern Small Stakes is by no means a casual read. It was created for people who take this game very seriously and are ready to put in the hard hours studying its contents and then applying it at the tables.

I want to thank everyone who supported me here on my blog, via email, on DTB, Facebook, Twitter and many other places throughout this (frankly insane) project. You helped me during the countless times in the past year when I didn't know if I would ever be able to finish this book.

Modern Small Stakes is massive and comprehensive. It was meant to be the "be all end all" definitive guide for these limits. It was absolutely the hardest thing that I have ever done in my life. I am finally satisfied with it now though. I hope you are too.


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Modern Small Stakes Technical Details
  • Please be aware that Modern Small Stakes is only available in the PDF format right now. One of my first priorities will be to start working on the Kindle and iPad versions of the book. Just like before with CTM, when these are released they will be made available free of charge to all previous buyers.
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if you have any questions about Modern Small Stakes.

Pages: 500
Word Count: 81,263
Copyright © 2014 by Nathan Williams

Saturday, July 5, 2014

The Difference Between Zoom and Regular Poker Tables

One of the most common questions that I get asked about is the adjustments that need to be made for Zoom on Pokerstars. I also see this all the time on poker forums with some people even wondering when somebody is going to write a book on the topic. Well, it won't be me that writes it. That much I can assure you! I am pretty sure that nobody else will either though.

The reason why is because the strategic differences between Zoom and the regular games just aren't large enough to warrant it. Pokerstars has done a great job marketing Zoom and it is still wildly popular with recreational players and grinders alike over two years since its release in May of 2012. However, at the end of the day it is still just the same game of poker. There are a couple of key differences between Zoom and regular poker games though that I will go into here.

Speed

The most obvious difference that anyone will notice right away is the speed of Zoom when compared to a regular table. Because of the fast fold button (which allows you to simply fold hands that you don't want to play instead of waiting for the action to be on you) Zoom tables deal somewhere in the neighbourhood of 4 times as many hands per hour as a regular table. Or if you are a live player it might be 10 or 12 times as fast as you are used to. 

Obviously this doesn't change anything about the actual game. It just speeds up the action considerably and allows you to get to the interesting hands that you want to play a lot faster. It is a brilliant idea and obviously great for grinders because they can get an incredible amount of hands in.

It is also great for recreational players because they don't have to wait for some 24 tabler who is timing out on a simple preflop decision. They don't even have to wait to get dealt in. They can sit down and start splashing the virtual chips around immediately which is exactly what they want. 

Lack of Information

The second most obvious difference with regards to Zoom is the big lack of information. With player pools on Pokerstars regularly in the hundreds of people at the micro and small stake levels you might only see the same person once every 20 hands or so. It is obviously therefore a lot harder to build up a reasonable sample on someone when compared to the regular tables where you collect data on them every single hand. 

This creates a different dynamic to the game. You can't take a sophisticated line against a reg based off of a mountain of data that you have collected on him. However it is also a two way street. They don't have much information on you either. In a way it is more like "real poker" as some live players might argue. But the important point is that you simply have to play more ABC by the book poker in many situations due to this lack of information. 

This isn't always a bad thing. I have discussed many ways to abuse this information gap in my DragTheBar Zoom videos by simply getting more aggressive than normal in a lot of common spots. Most of the mass multi-tabling nits won't have much information on you and they will just "wait for a better spot." 

Lack of Table Selection

Lastly (and this is the real kicker for a lot of people including me) is that in Zoom you are stuck with the pool that you are in. You can't really table select and you certainly can't seat select at all. This is why winrates will simply always be higher in the regular games. 

I would actually argue that the fish play better in Zoom games as well because of the fact that they can just fast fold their way to a reasonably good hand. One of the main reasons that they play so many ridiculous hands in the regular games and in live games as well is because they get bored and don't want to wait. 

The Verdict

So in closing you can probably already guess which games that I prefer to play in. I am not much of a big time rakeback grinder anymore though so 8 tabling Zoom for the next milestone bonus doesn't interest me very much. I am more interested in maintaining a higher winrate by chasing fish around and also being able to get position on them every single hand. This is more or less the whole point of the game in my opinion - consistently playing with much weaker players.  

With that said, at the very lowest limits (NL2 and NL5) I don't think it really matters which games you play in, Zoom or regular. There are huge whales and terrible regs everywhere (yes even in 2014). The Zoom games get pretty reg infested at higher limits though. Most people are grinding out very small winrates.

I think that overall Zoom is a very good thing for poker as it is a new and exciting take on the game for many recreational players. It is also a marketing dream for Pokerstars. And it is also great if you are a prolific rakeback grinder. 

Listen, at the end of the day if you love playing Zoom then keep playing it, don't listen to me. The Zoom games are harder but the difference is not massive. And what they might lose in terms of game quality they certainly make up for in terms of fun. However, if maximizing your winrate and moving up quickly are your goals in poker, then I would suggest that the regular tables are probably a better bet for you. 

If you found this article useful please share it with your friends on Facebook and Twitter below!

Go ahead and share your experiences with Zoom or the regular poker tables in the comments below as well.
Nathan Williams aka "BlackRain79" is a poker player, coach, DragTheBar instructor and the author of Crushing the Microstakes and Modern Small Stakes.